Thursday, October 30, 2008

Out of Box Thinking...

Simplest way to square a Number

Suppose you want to Square a Number “AB i.e equal to AB^2 = AB * AB

Simplest method to follow is Cris cross mothos: A^2/2AB/B^2
Example 1) Suppose you want to square 24, i.e 24 x 24, so from the criss-cross method.
= 2^2 / 2 (4 x 2) / 4^2
= 4 / 16 / 16 (add carry 1 to 16)

= 4/16+1/6

=4/17/6(add carry to 4)



Example 2) Square of 29 = ?
Now a = 2 and b = 9, by the above observation we substitute the values.
= 2^2 / 2 (2 x 9) / 9^2
= 4 / 36 / 81 ( hear 8 is a carry, so add it to the preceding number )
= 4 / 36 + 8 / 1 ( after adding 8 to 36 you get 44, carry 4 to the preceding number)
= 4 / 44 / 1
= 4 + 4 / 4 / 1
= 8 / 4 / 1
= 841

Types of Software Testing...

Testing methods
Software testing methods are traditionally divided into black box testing and white box testing. These two approaches are used to describe the point of view that a test engineer takes when designing test cases.
Black box testing
Black box testing treats the software as a black box without any knowledge of internal implementation. Black box testing methods include
equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing, traceability matrix, exploratory testing and specification-based testing.
Specification-based testing
Specification-based testing aims to test the functionality according to the requirements. Thus, the tester inputs data and only sees the output from the test object. This level of testing usually requires thorough test cases to be provided to the tester who then can simply verify that for a given input, the output value (or behavior), is the same as the expected value specified in the test case.
Specification-based testing is necessary but insufficient to guard against certain risks.
White box testing
White box testing, by contrast to black box testing, is when the tester has access to the internal data structures and algorithms (and the code that implement these)
Types of white box testing
The following types of white box testing exist:
· code coverage - creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code coverage. For example, the test designer can create tests to cause all statements in the program to be executed at least once.
· mutation testing methods.
· fault injection methods.
· static testing - White box testing includes all static testing.
Grey Box Testing
In recent years the term grey box testing has come into common usage. This involves having access to internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing the test cases, but testing at the user, or black-box level.
Manipulating input data and formatting output do not qualify as grey-box because the input and output are clearly outside of the black-box we are calling the software under test. This is particularly important when conducting integration testing between two modules of code written by two different developers, where only the interfaces are exposed for test. Grey box testing may also include reverse engineering to determine, for instance, boundary values or error messages.

Types of Testing:

Unit Testing - The most 'micro' scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.

Incremental Integration Testing - continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers.

Integration Testing - testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. the 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. this type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Functional Testing - black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application; this type of testing should be done by testers. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.)

System Testing - black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of a system.

End-To-End Testing - similar to system testing; the 'macro' end of the test scale; involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Sanity Testing Or Smoke Testing - typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or corrupting databases, the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.

Regression Testing - re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed, especially near the end of the development cycle. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.

Acceptance Testing - final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer, or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time.

Load Testing - testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.

Stress Testing - term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads, heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs, input of large numerical values, large complex queries to a database system, etc.

Performance Testing - term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.

Usability Testing - testing for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective, and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions, and other techniques can be used. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.

Install/Uninstall Testing - testing of full, partial, or upgrade install/uninstall processes.

Recovery Testing - testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.

Failover Testing - typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing'

Security Testing - testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access, willful damage, etc; may require sophisticated testing techniques.

Compatibility Testing - testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. environment.

Exploratory Testing - often taken to mean a creative, informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases; testers may be learning the software as they test it.

Ad-Hoc Testing - similar to exploratory testing, but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it.

Context-Driven Testing - testing driven by an understanding of the environment, culture, and intended use of software. For example, the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.

User Acceptance Testing - determining if software is satisfactory to an end-user or customer.

Comparison Testing - comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.

Alpha Testing - testing of an application when development is nearing completion; minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.

Beta Testing - testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.

Mutation Testing - a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful, by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

One Billion Equal to How Many...

1,000 = 1 thousand 3 zeros
1,000,000 = 1 million 6 zeros
1,000,000,000 = 1 billion 9 zeros
1,000,000,000,000 = 1 trillion 12 zeros
To Convert the Curency to Other Nation's Curency...

Monday, October 27, 2008


May this Diwali be as bright as ever, May this Diwali bring joy, health and wealth to you. May the festival of lights brighten up you and your near and dear ones lives, May this Diwali bring in u the most brightest and choicest happiness and love you have ever Wished for. May this Diwali bring you the utmost in peace and prosperity. May lights triumph over darkness. May peace transcend the earth. May the spirit of light illuminate the world. May the light that we celebrate at Diwali show us the way and lead us together on the path of peace and social harmony “WISH U A VERY HAPPY DIWALI”

Thursday, October 23, 2008

The extra features added to qtp 9.2 over qtp 8.2

1. It supports windows vists &.net frame work 2.0
2. In this we can associate more than one repository to the action
3. Settings option is moved to file menu from test menu.
4. We can comment/uncomment a block of statements at a time.
5. We can enable or disable group of breakpoints at a time.
6. Quality center connection is moved from tools menu to file menu.
7. One new menu called resources is added.
8. Missing resources pane is added.
9. Screen recorder is added to record all the operations performed at the time execution,this option presents in test results windoe.
10.Check syntax is also a new feature added to it.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Different recording modes in QTP

Normal recording mode:
Records the objects in your application and the operations performed on them. This mode is the default and takes full advantage of Quick Test's test object model, recognizing the objects in your application regardless of their location on the screen.
Analog Recording;
Enables you to record the exact mouse and keyboard operations you perform in relation to either the screen or the application window. In this recording mode, Quick Test records and tracks every movement of the mouse as you drag the mouse around a screen or window. This mode is useful for recording operations that cannot be recorded at the level of an object, for example, recording a signature produced by dragging the mouse.
Note: You cannot edit analog recording steps from within Quick Test.
Low-Level Recording ;
Enables you to record on any object in your application, whether or not Quick Test recognizes the specific object or the specific operation. This mode records at the object level and records all run-time objects as Window or Win Object test objects. Use low-level recording for recording tests in an environment or on an object not recognized by Quick Test. You can also use low-level recording if the exact coordinates of the object are important for your test. Note: Steps recorded using low-level mode may not run correctly on all objects.

QTP Frame Work and Extension of QTP Files

QTP Frame work is nothing but the organised way of keepingfiles used in AUT. Which is a set of assumptions, concepts and tools that provide support for automated software testing. But this frame work differs from companyto company bcoz each company follows its own pattern.
Usually this is QTP frame work
Main folder(name of the application)
Sub folders:-
1.Script files (.mts)
2.OR files (.mtr-> per action , .tsr-> shared)
3.Library files( .vbs)
4.Recovery files (.qrs)
5.Test Data files .xls
6.Output/Result files (.xml)
7.Functions (.txt)
8. Documents (.xls or xlsx)

Construct A Data Framework for Seamless Testing

Test automation architecture defines how to store, reference, group, share, and reuse test scripts and test data. Script execution is frequently supported by software, often called a test automation framework. The framework is a common structure into which you plug in scripts and data from independent test automation tools. It is up to script developers to decide how to organize test data and how the scripts read them. Meanwhile, the ease of test data manipulation and maintenance is one of the key aspects of framework viability.
To read it Completetely pls click this link:
Read from Page No:31

The Magzine is really superb...

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Please do not laugh!

In U.S. they invented a machine that catches thieves; they took it out
to different countries for a test.

In U.S.A, in 30 minutes, it caught 20 thieves;

In UK , in 30 minutes it caught 50 thieves;

Spain , in 30 minutes it caught 65 thieves;

Ghana , in 30 minutes it caught 600 thieves;

India , in 15 minutes the machine was stolen.

I told you na….Not to Laugh... :-)

Rejecting to Marry IT People

Monday, October 20, 2008

Mind blowing Caller Tune...

Yester day I went to take a PC in Computer shop. He is well known to me but I didn’t talk with him in phone any time only was F-F communication. But the thing is he was not there in the shop. The other member told me to call to his mobile. I tried calling but “mobile is currently out of Coverage area” (voice is coming….),then everyone thinks that, he is out of coverage area, I too thought the same. I told to that guy who told me to call…saying he is out coverage area.

He gave me mind blowing reply….that is his caller tune…try once again.

See the people are too creative in their works…

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Lyrics of Trivikram Srinivas-Oka raju Oka Rani

swarala veena ee vela lona neekemayyindey aakasamaa
yendalo ilaa poola vanala merupu kooda malleteegalaa
nelapai ilaa na adugu nilavadaa lokamanta kotta chotulaa
nuvvu tappa kallamundu leru yevaru nammavaa “swarala veena”
Charanam 1:
reyi cheera kappukunna chandamamani
ninnu choosi okkasari palakarinchi vellani
taara lanni allukunna meghamalani
valukalla sagarana kaatukallemarani
vaale poddulla jaare nee jada nadumapai natyame aaditey
pilichey poovuley kurisey manchulaa nuvvala challagaa navvitey
nenu choodalenu choosaka aagalenu yennallu ninnu vadili vundanooo “swarala veena”
Charanam 2:
moosivunna reppalallo kalala vanamunaa
nidura raani velalona kalavarinta rayana
oopiranta oohalato nindipoyina gundelona ninnu inka daachi vunchadam yela
neney nenugaa leney lenugaa naake vintaga vundigaa
neelaa yevvaru nanne yeppudu kammuko ledule intalaa
reyi nidura raadu pagalanta kunukuledu asalemayyindo naaku teliyadooo “swarala veena”

Monday, October 13, 2008

Free mobile themes and wall papers etc...

Hi Friends, you can down load mobile wall papers, Themes, Ringtones, Games and lot of mobile soft wares with free of cost at

Just you sign in to that web and down load whatever you need…

Friday, October 10, 2008

Awesome comparison of DASAVATHARAM

One Man - Ten Characters - One Movie
(Rama avatar - Avatar Singh) - Lord Rama stands for the one man one woman maxim, kind of symbolising true love.. Here Avatar portrays that spirit by saying that he loves his woman more than anything and wants to live for her.
Kalki avatar - Govindaraj Ramasamy As you know, the hero in kaliyug can be none other than the Kalki avatar!!!
(Balarama avatar - Balarama naidu )[As the name suggests and the role personifies Balaram naidu RAW officer and helps to kill the villain
( Krishna avatar - Vincent Poovaraghavan ) Lord krishna is actually a dalit, he is dark-skinned [shyamalam]. He saved draupadi when she was being violated and he was the actual diplomat in mahabharatham. Lord krishna dies of an arrow striking his lower leg. Now look at how vincent was introduced.. he appears when asin is about to be molested and he saves her like draupadi. Vincent is the dalit diplomat, fights for land issue [soil issue to be exact] and dies from the metal rod striking his leg. Oh even five of vincent’s men are drugged at P. Vasu’s.. sounds familiar???
(Parasurama avatar - Christian Fletcher ) - Parasurama is actually on an angry killing spree and killed 21 generations of the particular kshatriya vamsa. Hence the real KILLER… Guess what thats what our Fletcher is! He comes around with the gun [modern upgrade for axe] and kills everyone around
( Vamana avatar - Kalifulla khan ) - Remember in vamana avatar, lord vishnu takes the vishvaroopa, that is the giant form! Hence the giant kalifulla here symbolises vamana avatar.
(Narasimha avatar - Shingen Narahashi ) - first of all the name itself is a play on the words singam [means lion in tamil] and narasimha [the avatar being symbolised]. Lord Narasimha manifests himelf to kill the bad guy and he also teaches prahaladha. In the movie, he shows up to kill the killer fletcher! and is also a teacher.. Lord Narasimha had to kill the asura with bare hands and hence the martial arts exponent here..
(Varaha avatar - Krishnaveni paatti ) - In varaha avatar lord actually hides earth so as to protect life forms. Here too krishnaveni hides the germs - life form inside the statue so as to protect.
( Koorma avatar - Bush ) - The real koorma avatar, the lord is the turtle/tortoise that helps in stirring the ksheera sagara and bringing out the amruth. This essentially creates war among the devas and asuras. Similarly today Bush facilitates war between you know whom… May be Kamal also indicates that this avatar is a bit dumb like the tortoise…
( Macha Avthar - Nambi ) - nambi is thrown into water in an act of trying to save lord from being thrown into sea…

Online Voter ID Registration

Friends… if you are over 18 and still didn’t have voter card. pls apply for it. You can register your details online.
If you are not sure whether your name is there in the voter’s list or not, check it
Select district and MLA constituency.
This is official site for Election Commission Of Andhra Pradesh. Its a Government Site. You can even check your application status. You’ll get Application Number as soon as you Submit the form. Keep that with you for future reference.
“Utilize your Vote Power and make a change” Your vote can bring a better government

Full Telugu Comedy Stories

superb telugu stories are available in this blog...
I read recently one story titled: Devudike Dada Puttindhi..
The story is regarding telugu film industry and telugu film directors....the story narraion was excellent...

Sourav Ganguly

Personal data
Ganguly Cricket Statistics

Ever best Indian Cricket Captain

with Sachin and Vinod Kambli

Sourav with wife Dona Ganguly

Ganguly, sachin, sana and Dona

Ever best Indian Cricket Captain-Sourav Ganguly

Many people shouted at him for not playing well, Many told he need to resign and played Jokes on him. But the confidence was not lost in him, he regained his performance and bounced back all the comments he got. Now DADA is going to retire from Indian cricket (announced on Oct-7 ‘08). He is ever best Indian Cricket Captain.
Few Facts and Mile Stones of our Bengal Tiger ‘Sourav Ganguly’:
  1. He youngest son of Chandidas and Nirupa Ganguly.
  2. His father ran a flourishing print business and was one of the richest men in Kolkata.
  3. He was inspired to do so by his brother Snehasish Ganguly, an accomplished left-handed batsman for Bengal.
  4. Though he was actually right-handed, he batted left-handed to use his brother's equipment
  5. Ganguly made his One Day International debut for India against West Indies in 1992(Jan-11), and scored just 3 runs.
  6. Ganguly made his Test debut at Lord's against England June 20-24 in the year of 1996 and scored a century (3rd Cricketer t Lords.)Ganguly’s best bowling in an ODI 5/16 off 10 overs,
  7. Rahul Dravid’s comment, "On the off-side, first there is God, then there is Ganguly”.
  8. Ganguly was named the captain of the Indian Cricket Team (Yr of 2000) after the match fixing scandal (2000-05’).
  9. In 2003 under his captaincy India reached the World Cup Final, where they lost to the Australians.
  10. In 2004, he was awarded the Padma Shri.
  11. He is also the only player to win 4 consecutive man of the match awards in ODIs.
  12. Second fastest player to reach 11,000 ODI runs
  13. First Indian to score an ODI century against Australia in Australia.
  14. Highest ODI runs scorer in the world (in a calendar year) in 1997,1999,2000.
  15. Third in the list of hitting maximum number of sixes in ODIs.
  16. Second in the list of highest number of centuries in a single calendar year ever. 7 centuries in 2000
  17. Sourav Ganguly capped a memorable comeback by becoming the first recipient of the Castrol Asian Cricketer of the Year Award at a function held in Karachi in June 27-08’
  18. He scored only 6 centuries between 2001-2005, of which 3 centuries were against Kenya & 1 was against Namibia.
  19. Ganguly’s individual performance deteriorated during his captaincy, especially after successes in the World Cup, the tour of Australia in 2003 and the Pakistan series in 2004. Following indifferent form in 2004 and poor form in 2005, he was dropped from the team in October 2005
  20. He is India's Most successful test captain, with India winning 21 of 49 tests played under his captaincy.
  21. Nick Names of Ganguly are: Dada, Prince of Kolkata, Bengal Tiger, Maharaja.
  22. Ganguly led the Kolkata Knight Riders team owned by Shah Rukh Khan in the IPL Twenty20 cricket match-2008.
  23. Man of the Series awards: 3 in Test cricket
  24. 7 in ODI cricket
  25. § Man of the Match awards:
  26. 6 in Test cricket
  27. 31 in ODI


Wednesday, October 8, 2008


The most satisfying “TWO” letter word…”WE” Use it
The most poisonous “THREE” letter word…
“EGO” Kill it
The most used “FOUR” letter word…
“LOVE” Value it
The most pleasing “FIVE” letter word…
“SMILE” Keep it
The fastest spreading “SIX” letter word…
“RUMOUR” Ignore it
The hardest working “SEVEN” letter word…
“SUCCESS” Achieve it
The most enviable “EIGHT” letter word…
“JEALOUSY” Distance it
The most powerful “NINE” letter word…
“KNOWLEDGE” Acquire it
The most essential “TEN” letter word…

BOSS's Name Plate...

Just a while ago on my way to home I’ve noticed a guy on a 5 Gear, 200 CC, 2 MegaPixel Pulsar driving as if there’s no tommorrow on one of the busiest roads of Hyderabad. Its mentioned as 2 MegaPixel bike because hardly we notice anything regarding the bike owing to its speed. Even then one thing that caught my attention and me stand at unease is his nameplate number.
It read as ‘BOSS’. I wondered on how could he frame his wordings on the main nameplate skipping the number. Then my zero bulb got lit and I understood that it was indeed 8055 number written in digital format.
What a way to present yourself !!!
Who is the creator???

Brilliant Answer Given a Student

In one of the Oxford University Examinations, there was an essay question that has to be answered in 8 Pages. Case Studies, Explanations..etc are required.
One student gave a mindblowing answer to the question.
Q: What is Courage ?
Ans: This is Courage.

He was awarded the best student medal for that year.

Tuesday, October 7, 2008

How an Asset bubble will get create?

I got this info through forward mails… Read Below.. Very interesting… but Lengthy one… Similar thing has happened in US and
hope it shouldn't happen in India.

Ever wondered why do prices of land/stocks go up or down.........Just
go through the article given below.... it's rare that we get such
informative articles/forwards to read......

Here's a very interesting anecdote that describes how an "asset
bubble" builds up and what are  its consequences.

Read it even if it confuses you a bit...things will be clear as you
reach the end....

Once there was a little island country. The land of this country was
the tiny island itself. The total money in circulation was 2 dollar as
there were only two pieces of 1 dollar coins circulating around.

1) There were 3 citizens living on this island country. A owned the
land. B and C each owned 1 dollar.

2) B decided to purchase the land from A for 1 dollar. So, A and C now
each own 1 dollar while B owned a piece of land that is worth 1
The net asset of the country = 3 dollar.
3) C thought that since there is only one piece of land in the country
and land is non produceable asset, its value must definitely go up.
So, he borrowed 1 dollar from A and together with his own 1 dollar, he
bought the land from B for 2 dollar.

A has a loan to C of 1 dollar, so his net asset is 1 dollar.

B sold his land and got 2 dollar, so his net asset is 2 dollar.

C owned the piece of land worth 2 dollar but with his 1 dollar debt to
A, his net asset is 1 dollar.
The net asset of the country = 4 dollar.

4) A saw that the land he once owned has risen in value. He regretted
selling it. Luckily, he has a 1 dollar loan to C. He then borrowed 2
dollar from B and and acquired the land back from C for 3 dollar. The
payment is by 2 dollar cash (which he borrowed) and cancellation of
the 1 dollar loan to C.
As a result, A now owned a piece of land that is worth 3 dollar. But
since he owed B 2 dollar, his net asset is 1 dollar.

B loaned 2 dollar to A. So his net asset is 2 dollar.

C now has the 2 coins. His net asset is also 2 dollar.
The net asset of the country = 5 dollar. A bubble is building up.

(5) B saw that the value of land kept rising. He also wanted to own
the land. So he bought the land from A for 4 dollar. The payment is by
borrowing 2 dollar from C and cancellation of his 2 dollar loan to A.

As a result, A has got his debt cleared and he got the 2 coins. His
net asset is 2 dollar.
B owned a piece of land that is worth 4 dollar but since he has a debt
of 2 dollar with C, his net Asset is 2 dollar.

C loaned 2 dollar to B, so his net asset is 2 dollar.

The net asset of the country = 6 dollar. Even though, the country has
only one piece of land and 2 Dollar in circulation.

(6) Everybody has made money and everybody felt happy and prosperous.

(7) One day an evil wind blowed. An evil thought came to C's mind.
"Hey, what if the land price stop going up, how could B repay my loan.
There is only 2 dollar in circulation, I think after all the land that
B owns is worth at most 1 dollar only."

A also thought the same.

(8) Nobody wanted to buy land anymore. In the end, A owns the 2 dollar
coins, his net asset is 2 dollar. B owed C 2 dollar and the land he
owned which he thought worth 4 dollar is now 1 dollar. His net asset
becomes -1 dollar.

C has a loan of 2 dollar to B. But it is a bad debt. Although his net
asset is still 2 dollar, his Heart is palpitating.

The net asset of the country = 3 dollar again.

Who has stolen the 3 dollar from the country ?

Of course, before the bubble burst B thought his land worth 4 dollar.

Actually, right before the collapse, the net asset of the country was
6 dollar in paper. his net asset is still 2 dollar, his heart is

The net asset of the country = 3 dollar again.

(9) B had no choice but to declare bankruptcy. C as to relinquish his
2 dollar bad debt to B but in return he acquired the land which is
worth 1 dollar now.
A owns the 2 coins, his net asset is 2 dollar. B is bankrupt. His net
asset is 0 dollar. ( B lost everything ) C got no choice but end up
with a land worth only 1 dollar (C lost one dollar) The net asset of
the country = 3 dollar.

****************End of the story***************************

There is however a redistribution of wealth.
A is the winner, B is the loser, C is lucky that he is spared.
A few points worth noting -

(1) When a bubble is building up, the debt of individual in a country
to one another is also building up.

(2) This story of the island is a close system whereby there is no
other country and hence no foreign debt. The worth of the asset can
only be calculated using the island's own currency. Hence, there is no
net loss.

(3) An over damped system is assumed when the bubble burst, meaning the
land's value did not go down to below 1 dollar.

(4) When the bubble burst, the fellow with cash is the winner. The
fellows having the land or extending loan to others are the loser. The
asset could shrink or in worst case, they go bankrupt.

(5) If there is another citizen D either holding a dollar or another
piece of land but refrain to take part in the game. At the end of the
day, he will neither win nor lose. But he will see the value of his
money or land goes up and down like a see saw.

(6) When the bubble was in the growing phase, everybody made money.

(7) If you are smart and know that you are living in a growing bubble,
it is worthwhile to borrow money (like A ) and take part in the game.
But you must know when you should change everything back to cash.

(8) Instead of land, the above applies to stocks as well.

(9) The actual worth of land or stocks depend largely on psychology.

Load Runner Interview Questions...

Load Runner is Performance Testing Tool, which is Mercury product, to know more about the testing tools pls click here


1.What is load testing?
Load testing is to test that the application works with the loads that results from large number of simultaneous users , transactions and to determine whether it can handle peak usage periods.

2. What is performance testing?
Timing for both read and update transaction should be gathered to determine whether system functions or being performed in an acceptable time frame. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.

3. Explain the load testing process?
Step1: Planning the test: Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load testing objectives.
Step2: Creating Vusers: Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vusers, tasks performed by Vusers as whole, and tasks measured as transactions.
step3: Creating the scenario: A scenario describes the events that occurred during the testing session.It includes a list of machines scripts and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using load runner controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we defined the number of Vusers, the load generated machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests we may create a goal oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. Load runner automatically builds a scenarios for us.
step4: Running the Scenario: We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.
Step5: Monitoring the scenario: We monitor scenario execution using the load runner online run time transaction system resource, web resource, web server resource, web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource and Java performance monitors
Step6: Analyzing the Test results: During the scenario execution LR records the performance of the application under different loads. We use load runner’s graphs and reports to analyze the application performance.

4. When do you do load and performance testing?
We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For Ex: A typical application testing scenario might depict 1000 users login in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different software application and platform, can it hold so many 100’s and 1000’s of users etc.. This is when we set to do load and performance testing.

5. What are the components of load runner?
The components of load runner are the virtual user generator, controller, the agent process, load runner analysis and monitoring, load runner books online.

6. What component of load runner would you use to record a script?
The Virtual user generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enable you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

7. What component of Load runner would you use to playback the script in multi user mode?
The controller component is used to playback the script in multiuser mode. This is done during the scenario run where a Vuser script is executed by number of Vusers in a group.

8. What is a rendezvous point?
You insert rendezvous point into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous point instructs Vusers to wait during the test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. for Ex. To emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

9. What is a Scenario?
A Scenario defines the events that occur during each testing sessions. For example a scenario defines and controls the number of user to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.

10. Explain the recording mode for Web Vuser Script?
We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business process on a client application. VuGen creates a script by recording the activity between the client and server. For example, in web based application, VuGen monitors the client end of database and traces all the request sent to, and receive the database server. We use VuGen to monitor the communication between the application and server, Generates the required function calls and insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script

11.Why do you create parameters?
Parameters are like script variables. they are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.

12. what is co-relation? Explain the different between automatic Co-relation and Manual co-relation?
Co-relation is used to obtained data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Co-relation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automated Co-relation is where we set some rules for co-relation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data, which are created by these rules. In manual co-relation the value we want to correlate is scanned and create co-relation is used to co-relate

13. How do you find out where co-relation is required? Give few example from your projects?
Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. from this we can pick a value to be correlated.
Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values, which needed to be correlate.
In my project there was a unique ID developed for each customer it was nothing but insurance number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.

14. Where do you set automatic correlation options?
Automatic Correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here, we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for the correlation. Automatic Correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlate, we just do create correlation for values and specify how the value to be created.

15. What is the function to capture dynamic value in the web Vuser script?
Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

16. When do you disable login Virtual User Generator, when do you choose standard and extended logs?
Once we debug script and verify that it is functional, we can enable login for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled
Standard log option: When you select standard log it creates a standard log off functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large Load test scenarios when you copy a script to a scenario logging is automatically disabled.
Extended log option: Select extended log to create and extended log, including warning and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the extended log options.

17. How do you debug a load runner script?
VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the run step by step command and break points.The debug settings in the options dialog box allow us to determine the extend of the trace to be performed during the scenario execution. The debug information is written to the output window we can manually set the message class within your script using the LR_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.

18. How do you write user defined fuctions in Load runner? Give me few functions you wrote in your previous project?
Before we create the user defined function we need to create the external library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen Bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as parameter. The function should have the following format: _declspec(dllexport) char * < function name > (char*, char*) Examples of the user defined functions are as follows: Get Version Get Current Time, Getpltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.

19. What are the changes you can make in runtime settings?
The runtime settings that we make are
1)Pacing: It has iteration count.
2)Log: Under this we have disabled logging standard log
3)Extended think time: In think time we have two options like ignore think time and replay think time.
4)General: under general tab we can set the Vusers as process or as multi threading and whether each step as transaction.

20. Where do you set iteration for Vuser testing?
We set iteration in the run time settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is runtime setting, phasing tab, set number of iterations.

21.How do you perform functional testing under load?
Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.

22. What is Ramp-up? How do you set this?
This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a vlaue to wait between intervals can be specified. To set Ramp-up, go to “Scenario Scheduling Options”.

23. What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?
VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading this enables more Vusers to be run per generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, The same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, Thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, the only one instance of driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of Vusers (Say 100). each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.

24. If you want to stop the execution of your script on error? How do you do that?
The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the actions sections, execute the Vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned a status “stopped”. For this to take effect we have to first uncheck the “continue on error” option in runtime setting.

25. What is the relation between response time and throughput?
The throughput graph shows the amount of data in bites that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

26. Explain the configuration of your system?
The configuration of your system refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools. this system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the low testing objectives.

27. How do you identify the performance bottlenecks?
Performance bottleneck can be detected by using monitors. these monitors might me application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitor . They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario, which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits /second, network delay graphs etc..

28. If web server, database and network are all fine where could be the problem?
The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.

29. how do you find web server related issues?
Using web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits /second that occurred during scenario, the number of hit responses per second the number of download pages per sec.

30. how did you find the database related issues?
By running database monitor and help of data resource graph we can find database related issues. Example, you can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and then you can see database related issues.

31.What is the differences between overlay graph and correlate graph?
Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common X axis. Left Y axis on the merged graph shows the current graphs value and right Y axis show the value of Y axis of the graph that was merged.
Correlate Graph: Plot the Y axis of two graphs against each other. The active graph Y axis becomes X axis of merged graph. Y axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graphs Y axis.

32. How did you planned the load? What are the criteria?
Load test is planned to decide the number of users. What kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on two important documents, task distribution diagram and transaction profile. task distribution diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and of usage are decided from this diagram. transaction profile gives us the information about the transaction names and their priorities levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.

33. What does Vuser_init action contains?
Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server

34. What does Vuser_end action contain?
It contains logoff procedures.

35. What is think time? How does you change the threshold?
Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Ex: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait serveral seconds to review the data before resposding. This delay is known as the think time.
Changing the threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. the default value is 5 seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the recording options of the VuGen.

36.What is the difference between standard Log and Extended Log?
The standard Log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about parameter substitution, Data returned by the server, advanced trace.

37. Explain the following functions
lr_debug_message - the lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the out put log when the specified message class is set.
lr_output_message - this function sends notification to the controller output window and the Vuser log file.
lr_error_message - this function sends an error message ti the load runner output window.
lrd_stmt- this function associates a character string ( usually a sql statement) with a courser.
this function sets a sql statement to be processed.
lrd_fetch - this function fetches th next row from the result set.
Throughput- if the thruoghput scales upword as time progresses and number of Vusers incraesed, this indecates that the bandwidth is sufficient.
if the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers increased, it would be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume of data delivered.

38.Types of goals in goal oriented scenario

Load runner provides u with 5 different types of goals in goal oriented scenario:
The no. of concurrent Vusers
The no. of hits per second
The no. of transactions per second
The no. of pages per minute
The transaction response time that you want your scenario

39Analysis scenario(bottlenecks):
In running Vuser graph correlated with the response time graph you can see that as no. of Vusers increases, the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually increases.In other words, the average response time steadily increases as the load increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increases in the average response time.We say that the test broke the server.That is the mean time before failure (mtbf). The response time clearly began to degrade when there were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.

40.What is running virtual user graph?
It displays the number of Vusers that execute vuser script during each second of the scenario run. Only running and rendezvous state are include(loading, ready and pause are not displayed).

41.What protocol does LR supports?
Industry slandered protocols .For EX: HTTP and ODBC are explicitly supported by LR. Further more any protocol that communicates over a windows socket can be supported.

42. What do i need to know to do load testing in addition to knowing how to use the LR tool?
In addition to knowing the tool:
-management aspects of load testing, planning being paramount
-requirements gathering, profile/mix,SLA,acceptance criteria
-an general understanding of the protocol yo are working with, developers can be unhealpfull
-a basic understanding of c programming
-know that you will be working wit demising time scales and you are really at the end of the life cycle
-as a result of the above you may have to work unsociable covers including week ends
- managers and other “Powers that be”-”BOX tickers” will not understand your plight
You need to be able to communicate effectively at all levels wit different departments from business to Dev to system testing
-voice your problems as soon as possible- planning
-fail to plan - plan to fail

43.What can i monitor with LR?
Monitor system bottle necks during a test run can capture and display the performance data from every server or component.

44.How many users can i emulate with LR on a pc?
Unlimited, no dead end.
Depends on system response. That to in turn depend on various factors like entire system configuration etc.
If system bottleneck observes in very beginning or minimum number of Vusers no further addition of Vusers will be considered unless observed bottle neck is resolved.

45.What r the Vuser comp[components in the LR?
Application components used are client, data base or additionally business application server
Web server works on and through LAN, WAN or WWW. connection.
Application server components are client, business server and data base server without use of www but through protocols like ftp.

46. What is running virtual user graph?
It displays the number of Vusers that execute vuser script during each second of the scenario run. Only running and rendezvous state are include(loading, ready and pause are not displayed).

47.What are the reasons why parameterization is necessary when load testing the web server and the data base server?
Parameterization is generally done to test with multiple set of data or records.

48. What is LR?
LR accurately measure and analysis the system performance and functionality .

49. When LR is used?
When multiple users were work concurrently

50.What is the advantage of using LR?
1. LR automatically records the performance of the client server during test.
2. LR ckecks where performance delauys occure netwoerk client delays.
3. LR monitor the network and server resource to help the improve performance.

51How you load a loadrunner agent?
Controller instruct the remote command launcher to launch the agent.

52. how many types of Vusers are available?
There are several types of Vusers
1. GUI
2. Database
3.RTE(Terminal emulator)
4. SAP
6. Peoplesoft
7. Java

53. What is GUI Vuser and on which platform it will run?
GUI vuser operate graphical user interface application and it can run in either the MS windows or X windows environment.

54. What is loadrunner API function?
Database Vuser do not operate client application. Using loadrunner API function the database Vuser can access data from the server.

55. how do develop the database Vuser script?
Developing the database Vuser script either by recording with load runner Vuser script generator (VuGen) or by using loadrunner Vuser script template.

56. How many sections database Vuser script have?
3 sections, written in code that assemble in C, SQL call to the database, written in TSL (test script language).

57. How you enhance the basic script?
By adding control flow, structure, by inserting transaction point and rendezvous point, adding functions.

58. What is runtime setting?
Runtime setting includes loop.log and timing information.

59. What is standalone mode?
To verify that the script runs correctly or not.

60. What type of function generate and insert by the VuGen to the script whe you record a script?
1. LR function (Vuser function)
2. Protocol function.

61. What is LR function?
Obtain the information about Vuser running in a scenario.

62 What is protocol function?
Obtain the information about the type of Vuser.

63. what are the section contained by the VuGen while creating a Vuser script?
VuGen contains the 3 sections.
1. Vuser-init
2. Action
3. Vuser-End

64. What is Vuser-init section?
Record your log into the server(Vuser initialize loaded)

65. What is action section?
Record the client activity

66. What is Vuser end section?
Record a log off into the server(Vuser stopped)

67.What is the Vuser in the Scenario?
Loadrunner replace the human user with Vuser.

68. What is host?
Host is machine which execute the Vuser script.

69. What are the load runner testing process?
There are five steps:
1. Planning the test.
2. Creating the Vuser script.
3. Creating the scenario.
4. Running the scanario.
5. Analysis the test result.

70. What is planning for test?
Define the performance testing requirements, for ex: Number of concurrent users, typical business processess and required response time.

81. What do you mean by creating Vuser script?
Creating Vuser script for emulate the action that virtual user perform during the scenario execution.

82. What are the processes for developing a Vuser script?
There are 5 steps for developing a Vuser script.
1. recording the Vuser script.
2. Edit the Vuser script.
3. runtime settings.
4. Run the vuser script in standalone mode.
5. Incorporate the Vuser script into a load runner scenario

83. How to create a scenario?
We have to install load runner controller to the host. then we include list of hosts (where Vuser script execute) then the list of Vuser script ( where Vuser run) and then list of vuser that run during the scenario.

84. What do you mean by remote command launcher?
RCL enables the controller to start the application on the host machine.

85. What is loadrunner agent?
Agent is interface between host machine and controller.

86.What is report viewer?
Each report viewer contains the report header and report viewer tool bar.

87.. What is Vuser script?
While run a scenario every Vuser execute a script that is known as Vuser script.

88. What the vuser script contain?
The Vuser script includes the function that measure and record the performance of the server during the scenario.

89.. What is transaction?
Transaction measures time, which takes for the server to respond to task submitted my Vuser.

90. What is rendezvous point?
To emulate peak load on the srever.

91. When the rendezvous point is inserted?
when multiple Vuser to perform tasks at exactly the same time then insert the rendezvous point to emulate the peak load on server.

92. What is report header and what are the information contains?
It display general scenario information and it contains the information like title, scenario, result start time, end time and duration.

93. What is rendezvous graph?
It indicate when Vuser were released from rendezvous point and how many Vuser are released from each point. It help the transaction performance time.

94. What is transaction per second graph(PASS)?
It display the number of completed, successful transactions performed during each second of scenario run.

95. What is percentile graph?
The percentage of transaction that were performed within a given time range.

96. What is transaction performance graph?
Displays the average time taken to perform transaction during each second of the scenario run.

97. What are types of correlation?
Manual and Automation co-relation
Manual correlation: correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries.
Automation correlation: It is where we set some rules for correlation.
It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data, which are created by these rules.

98. What is load runner controller?
Controller is managed and maintain the scenario. Using controller you control all the vuser in single work station.

99.How VuGen create a Vuser script?
By recording the activity between client and server

100. how you edit the script?
While editing the script we have to insert the transaction point and rendezvous point.

101. When a scenario run a exactly, what happens?
1. the controller checks the scenario configuration information.
2. Then next it invoke the application that you select to run with the scenario.
3. Then transform each script to its related hosts, when the vuser are ready they start execution.

102. How to run a scenario?
Open an existing scenario
Configure the scenario
set the result directory
Run the scenario

103. What is the load runner start transaction and its syntax?
It will start the transaction on the script.
Syntax: Lr-start-transaction(”transaction name”)

104. What is the load runner end transaction and its syntax?
It will end transaction.
Syntax: Lr-end-transaction(”transaction name”, LR-AUTO)

105. Where you insert the rendezvous point?
Rendezvous point inserted into script to calculate the peak load of the server.
Syntax: lr-rendezvous(”rendezvous point”)

106. What are the elements in the load runner controller?
Title bar ( Name of the scenario presently working). Menu bar ( selecting the various command ). Tool bar. status bar.

107. What are the 5 icons appear in the bottom of the controller windows?
1. Host windows (list of machines)
2. Script windows (list of all the vuser script)
3. Rendezvous windows
4. Transaction windows(display all the transactions )
5. output window(Display error and notification message)

108. What is .lrs?
Loadrunner save the information in a scenario files.

109. What is scenario wizard?
Through scenario wizard we can create a new scenario.

110. What is filtering and sorting?
We can filter the information display only those items that meet the selected criteria(filter box) exam you can filter Vuser only those who are in ready state.
Sorting we can sort all the Vuser in the vuser list. In order to their vuser ID(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9).

111. What are the information creating for each host?
1. The status of the host.
2. The platform type of the host(window/unix)
3 Details of the scenario.

112. How to create a host list for a scenario?
1.Install remote command launcher on every machine.
2. Add the name of the host to the host lists.
3. Set attributes for each host.
4. Select which hosts will take part in the scenario.

113. What the host attributes determine?
1. The maximum number of vuser that host can run.
2. The initialization quota.
3. The location of the winrunner configuration file.
4. The location of the file during runtime.

114. How you set maximum number of vuser that a host can run?
We can modify the maximum number of Vuser according to the (available resource, the needs of yours scenario, Loadrunner license arguments).

115. What do you mean by initialization of quota?
Capabilities of the host that at a time how many vuser are initialize.

116.When the load runner controller opens the winrunner file, then what is the location of the winrunner configuration file?

117.. What is scenario default?
Instruct the Vuser to use the winrunner configuration file.

118.. What is local configuration file?
Instruct the Vuser to use hosts winrunner configuration file.

119. What do you mean by path?
Use winrunner configuration file i.e., in a specific location on the network.

120.. During run-time where the hosts saves the files?
In temporally in the local drive of each host.

121.. What is script list?
It contain all Vuser script that Vuser can run.

122. What are the information contained by script windows for each script in the list?
1. Name of the Vuser script.
2. Type of the Vuser script.
3. location(Path).
4. command line option.

123. how to modify the script?
Using vuser script information dialog box.

124.. What is the purpose of running the scenario?
To check the response time of client or server system under load.

125. Why we insert the rendezvous point while running the scenario?
If a multiple Vuser to perform a task at exactly the same time.

125. When you initialize the Vuser what happens?
The Vuser status change from DOWN to PENDING to INITIALIZING to READY.
If Vuser files to initialize, the Vuser status changes to ERROR.

126. What is pause command?
It changes the status of the Vuser from RUNNING to PAUSE.

I have taken these Questions from software questions website.